Sesbania grandiflora (also known as agati, syn. Aeschynomene grandiflora,Agati grandiflora or hummingbird tree/scarlet wisteria is a small tree in the genus Sesbania.It is a fast-growing tree, leaves are regular and rounded and the flowers white and red in color according to its species. The fruits look like flat, long and thin green beans. The tree thrives under full exposure to sunshine and is extremely frost sensitive.
Its a small soft wooded tree up-to 3-8m, leaves 15–30 cm long; leaflets 10-20 pairs or more and an odd one. Oblong, 1.5-3.5 cm long variety red, 7.5–10 cm long in lax, 2-4 flower racemes, calyx campanulate, shallowly 2-lipped. Pods slender, falcate or straigh, 30–45 cm long, suture thick, Seeds ca. 30, to 8mm.Indigenous from Malaysia to North Australia; Cultivated in many parts of India. It has a large number of traditional uses. It grows where there is good soil and hot humid temperature. Die in snow, cold weather. It’s a tropical plant.It contain arginine, cysteine, histidine, isolcucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, threonine, alanine, aspargine, aspartic acid, oleanolic acid, galactose, Rhamnose & glucuronic acid.Leaves used as tonic, diuretic, laxative, antipyretic, chewed to disinfect mouth and throat. Flower in headache, dimness of vision, Catarrh, Headache, cooling and improving appetite, bitter, astringent, acrid, antipyretic. Bark is used for cooling (ayurvedha and siddha medicinal terms), bitter tonic, anthelmintic, febrifuge, diarrhea, Small pox, Astringent. Fruits in Bitter & acrid, laxative, fever, pain, bronchitis, anemia, tumors, colic, jaundice, poisoning. Root used in Rheumatism, Expectorant, Painful swelling, Catarrh.The young pods are also eaten, along with the leaves. In Sri Lanka, agati leaves, known as Katura murunga in Sinhala language, are sometimes added to sudhu hodhi or white curry, a widely eaten, thin coconut gravy and is believed locally to be a cure for canker sores. In India this plant is known as agati (Hindi), agastya (Kannada), agise (Telugu), and both the leaves and the flowers have culinary uses. language|khmer language], Angkair Dey, used in somlaw maju, onlork, both flowers and young shoots are edible.Anti-urolithiatic / Antioxidant: Evaluation of Sesbania grandiflora for antiurolithiatic and antioxidant properties : The leaf juice exhibited antiurolithiasis activity and antioxidant properties.
• Smoke-Induced Oxidative Damage/ Protection Effect: (1) Study showed a protective effect of Sesbania grandiflora against cigarette smoke-Induced oxidative damage in Rats: An aqueous suspension of SG provided support for traditional use of SG in the treatment of smoke-related disease. (2) Study showed that S. grandiflora leaves restrain cigarette smoke-induced oxidative dame in liver and kidney of rats.
• Antimicrobial / Synergism: SYNERGISM BETWEEN METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA (FABACEAE) FLOWERS AND OXYTETRACYCLINE: Study showed synergism against all 12 bactrial species, the highest synergism attained was against Shigella boydii.
• Anxiolytic / Anticonvulsant: Study showed significant delay of onset of convulsions in PTZ- and STR-induced seizures in mice. The triterpene fractions exhibited a wide spectrum of anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activity.
• Cardioprotective / Antioxidant: Study showed that chronic cigarette smoke exposure increases oxidative stress and the aqueous suspension of S. grandiflora had a protective effect against oxidative damage through an antioxidant effect.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the prophylactic effects of administration of bark extracts of SG and S. sesban on the development of carrageenan-induced paw edema and adjuvant-induced arthritis. A high NO level may suppress immune response probably through inhibition of iNOS expression through a feedback inhibition mechanism.
• Hypolipidemic: A study in Triton induced hyperlipidemic rats showed significant decrease in serum cholesterol, phospholipid, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and significant increase in HDL.
• Forage: Study showed the foliage from S. grandiflora has a high potential as feed for growing goats, as sole component or as supplement.
• Anti-Cancer: Study in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing Swiss albino mice showed the ethanol extract of S. grandiflora was effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic models that is comparable to 5-fluorouracil.
• Anti-Ulcer: Study showed significant reduction in the ulcer index and significant inhibition of gastric mucosal damage induced by aspirin, ethanol, and indomethacin. Results suggest a protective effect that might be mediated by both anti-secretory and cytoprotective mechanisms.
• Wound Healing: Study of ethanol flower extract ointment showed greater wound healing contracting ability and significantly increased tensile strength. The wound healing property was attributed to tannin and other nutritious content.