Prior to the discoveries made by this year’s Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology winners, progress into clinical development of new cancer treatments was slow.However, “immune checkpoint therapy” as it is known has since revolutionised the battle against the disease, and has fundamentally changed the way we view how cancer can be managed.In particular, it has reduced reliance on so-called blunderbuss treatments, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Checkpoint therapy using PD-1 has proven more effective and positive results are being seen in several types of cancer, including lung cancer, renal cancer, lymphoma and melanoma.But new studies suggest combining a therapy targeting both CTLA-4 and PD-1 can be even more effective, particularly in patients with melanoma.